Porcelain is a ceramic material with very low water absorption (less than 0.5%), which gives it the property of being frost resistant, making it the most recommended material for outdoor installation. It has also characteristics of hardness and resistance that make it better than other ceramic products.
Ceramics are composed of natural materials, and there are many variables in the production process that can affect the final product, both in shade and size. For this reason, products are separated by shade and caliber, in order to guarantee customers the uniformity of the product they receive.
On the one hand, ceramics are composed of natural materials, and there are many variables in the production process that can affect the final product. Small variations in the raw materials, composition or manufacturing parameters may cause small differences in colour. For this reason, our products are separated by shade.
On the other hand, some of our products have a strong shade variation, in order to be as similar as possible to the natural products they imitate (wood, stone, clay...). In these cases, it is not advisable to compare the product piece by piece, but rather to make a panel with several pieces to observe the effect of the shade variation. The level of shade variation of each model is identified in our catalogue.
The skirting board shade should not be compared with the base shade in the same plane, i.e. side by side. These materials are designed to be placed at a 90° angle to each other. The change in angle makes the light to cause a change in shade. To compare them properly, they should be observed as they will be placed in the future, i.e. the base on the floor and the skirting board supported by the wall.
Yes, there are applicable standards to ceramic tiles. Specifically, Standard UNE-EN-ISO 14411 (ISO 13006) defines the classification, characteristics, and requirements that this type of product should meet. In addition, there are specific standards for each of the technical characteristics that they need to meet, as well as the tests that are required to obtain them. GAYAFORES complies with all these requirements, and in addition our acceptance ranges are much stricter than those established by the Standards, to guarantee the satisfaction of our customers with our product.
No complaints should be processed for already placed product. On the one hand, it is the installer responsibility to check tiles before they are placed. In addition, many of the complaints about installed product are often due to incorrect installation, use, cleaning or maintenance. Complaints only should be accepted where the defect is due to a material problem that does not appear until after a period of time. This fact is stated on all our product boxes.
Porcelain tiles (Group BIa) main characteristic is their very low water absorption. For this reason, not every type of bonding material is valid for this class of products. The recommended bonding materials must be chemically bonded. For this reason, at least type C2 cementitious adhesive (glue cement) should be used, and better performing bonding materials (type D or R) may be used. The tiles placement never should be carried out using traditional methods with mortar and sand. Below is a link to a very complete document about bonding materials:
Porcelain tile (absorption group BIa) is characterized by high strength and hardness, so some considerations must be taken into account. This material can be cut with a traditional dry ceramic cutter ("ruby"), but selecting a suitable roller for this type of product. Specifically, for porcelain tile, the following ruby-brand rollers should be used: TM-TX01992, TM-TX01959 and TZ-TX 01900. They can also be cut without problem using a radial saw or by waterjet cutting.
Below is a video from the usual supplier of cutting equipment, with equipment set up for porcelain tile cutting:
When selecting the product, the ideal is to choose materials with low water absorption. In that case, our porcelain products are perfect. In addition, the product must be placed properly, with the right bonding material and laid in a thin layer. And above all, in wet areas, the grout plays a fundamental role, as it must be highly impermeable; therefore, grouts of the improved cementitious type (CG2(W)) or reactive resin (RG) should be chosen.
The "sticking" tile installation, also called "Valencian style", is a technique that is not recommended nowadays. It is still only useful for porous materials with high water absorption. However, it is totally inadvisable for current materials, especially for porcelain tiles and large formats. The recommended technique is "thin-bed" tile installation, applying the bonding material with a notched trowel.
As indicated on our boxes and in our catalog, long, slat-type materials should be locked at 15%. This recommendation minimizes the effect of the flatness of the pieces that this type of product may have and ensures an optimum finish after installation.
The width of the tile-to-tile joint should be chosen as a function of the type and format of the tile, its dimensional tolerances, type of substrate, etc. In accordance with these considerations, the recommendations are as follows:
A joint between 1.5 and 3 mm is recommended for materials with very little dimensional variation, such as rectified products.
A joint between 3 and 5 mm is recommended for large formats on stable substrates.
A joint of 5 mm or more is recommended for materials with little dimensional regularity, unstable substrates…
The ceramic material should not be laid without a joint or "butt joint".
In addition to purely technical considerations, aesthetic considerations are also important, so for this reason a joint greater than the technically recommended one can be used, in order to have a better finish.
More information can be found in the following document (page 42):
t is very important to make a good choice of grout material, so that it fulfills its functions (stress absorption, strength, durability, insulation,...). In general, the use of "gypsum grout" is not recommended, as it does not fulfill these functions. Cementitious (Type CG) or resinous (Type R) materials should be used. Below is a link to a page specializing in this subject, in order to make the right choice for your purpose (page 45):
Nowadays, grout materials are available in various shades. When choosing the color of this material, aesthetic aspects must be taken into account (combination of colors, continuity of tone,...); but technical issues must also be considered, such as cleanliness (a dark grout with a light product can make it dirty).
In addition to the tile-to-tile joints, it is necessary to leave movement joints in the tile installation (structural, perimeter and expansion joints), both in floors and walls. Their purpose is to absorb the stresses of all the elements involved in the tile installation, since this system includes the ceramic material, the bonding material and the substrate. All these elements and their interactions can suffer variations, either by structural movements, changes in temperature and/or humidity... Therefore, when laying ceramic material, it is necessary to take into account these types of joints, both structural and perimeter. As a general rule, movement joints should be placed every 16-25 m2 in exteriors or 25-40 m2 in interiors. However, there are many architectural factors (size of the tile, shape of the room, additional factors such as underfloor heating or direct insolation,...), which may modify these general criteria, for which a study by a qualified technician will be required.
More information can be found in the following document (page 52):
Porcelain tile, due to its technical characteristics, is the most versatile type of material, so it can be installed on walls and floors, indoors and outdoors, always following the appropriate installation guidelines.
Porcelain tile can be used to be laid inside swimming pools. Caution should only be taken with the cleaning products used, as some are very aggressive (such as salfumán) and can damage the enamel of the tile.
Porcelain tile can also be used without any problem around the pool, but in this case it is essential to choose a product with adequate slip resistance, class C3 according to the Technical Building Code (CTE).
Ceramic tile floors are ideal for use with radiant floor heating. Their thermal mass and high conductivity result in a floor that provides radiant heat quickly and they also retain heat well, making the system highly reactive and efficient. The choice of ceramic floor with underfloor heating provides rooms with soft and even heating, so that the ceramic floor is transformed into a cozy and comfortable surface. The radiant heat of in-floor heating does not dry out the air like many conventional systems and will not move dust around that can promote allergic reactions.
Mosaics maintain the technical characteristics of the base tiles they come from. Therefore, there is no inconvenience in laying them as flooring. However, special care must be taken to ensure that this type of material is laid correctly.
There is no inconvenience in placing a porcelain ceramic product in the exterior area of any fireplace or barbecue. However, it should not be used inside the fireplace, where it is more advisable to use refractory materials.
Materials with reliefs are usually recommended for installation as wall coverings (installation group W), since they can cause problems when walking on them if they are installed on the floor. In addition, the ridges of these reliefs will suffer more wear than the lower parts. Therefore, it is not advisable to lay tiles with reliefs on the floor.
It is usual that the problems of dirt and difficulty of cleaning are caused by an incorrect cleaning at the end of the work, and specifically with the existence of remains of grouting material that when "cleaning" we distribute uniformly all over the surface. What happens is that a thin film of these grouts or bonding materials remains, practically inappreciable, and what they do is retain the dirt.
Therefore, when this happens, it is necessary to carry out a thorough "end-of-work cleaning", eliminating these remains by means of the use of specific descaling cleaning products or "quitacementos", always from prestigious suppliers and scrupulously complying with the recommendations for their use.
Most of the remains of bonding or grouting material that must be cleaned after a work can be removed with water, using a mop or cloth. However, there are remains of material that can be more difficult to clean, either by their own nature or because they are embedded in the relief of the tiles. For this cleaning, do not use salfumán. We recommend the use of specific products, such as the one we propose below:
Porcelain tile (absorption group BIa) is characterized by its high resistance and hardness. When trying to drill a hole, a specific drill bit for this type of material should be used, and a drill of adequate power and at the revolutions indicated by the manufacturer of the drill bit. In addition, it is recommended to give a small blow with a nail at the point to be drilled to "break" the vitreous surface of the tile. It is recommended to use electric drills without hammer mode. The following are examples of porcelain tile drills:
The whitish stains on the floor usually appear due to the lime contained in the water. For its elimination there are several products that can be used, from a commercial anti-lime, to products such as vinegar or lemon. The effect of one or the other will depend on the amount of lime scale accumulated.
Al finalizar la obra de colocación y rejunte de la cerámica es habitual que quede una fina película de estos materiales de rejuntar o de agarre, prácticamente inapreciable, que suele retener la suciedad. Cuando esto ocurre es necesario realizar una “limpieza de final de obra” a fondo , eliminando estos restos con la técnica adecuada.
Most of the remains of bonding or grouting material that need to be cleaned after a job can be removed with water, using a mop or cloth. However, there are remains of material that can be more difficult to clean, either by their very nature or because they are embedded in the relief of the tiles themselves. For this cleaning, it is not recommended to use salfuman, but specific products, desincrustants or removers, always from reliable suppliers, and complying scrupulously with the recommendations of use of the same ones.
The following is an example of this type of product:
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